COP28: Five things scientists want to see happen

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The COP28 climate conference, which will bring together world leaders and scientists from around the world, begins next week.

This is the 28th “Conference of the Parties” to be held between November 30 and December 12. This applies to the 198 parties that have signed it United Nations 1992 Framework Agreement on Climate Change in Brazil.

More than 70,000 people will attend this year’s event in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Others involved include many lobbyists, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), international organizations, and scientists from around the world.

COP28 President-designate Dr. Sultan Al Jaber speaks on stage. Scientists hope that a number of key issues will be raised at the Dubai climate conference.
Photo by Brian Bader/Getty Images courtesy of Bloomberg

This year’s event will be the first to be held internationally to show how much progress has been made towards that goal. Paris Climate Change Agreement. This is the year It was adopted by the COP21 conference in 2015 to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) by 2050 compared to pre-industrial levels.

Scientists hope that a number of important issues will be raised at the conference.

1. Limiting temperature rise

Many experts hope so limiting temperature rise 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit is highly regarded, as international efforts are nowhere near this goal.

Daniel Kingston, a senior lecturer at the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, said in a statement: “Global average temperature increases appear to be larger than these individual extremes. “September was by some margin the warmest month in the instrumental record so far, and 2023 is likely to be the warmest year overall. In addition, the global warming that occurred in the second half of the year is enough for a temporary push. The planet has exceeded 1.5 degrees Celsius of warming.

“Against this backdrop, the recent UNEP Emissions Gap Report shows that current global emissions reduction commitments put us on track for a 2.5-2.9°C rise in temperature – well short of our commitment under the Paris Agreement,” said Kingston.

Many hope that COP28 will address the fact that many companies around the world do not have a net zero target.

“COP28 must change the pace at which companies are changing current practices to meet the 1.5°C target,” Helen Roberts, associate professor and director of the Climate and Energy Finance Group at the University of Otago, said in a statement. “Some companies have no net zero targets and without commitment from businesses, the ability to accelerate efforts to tackle climate change is severely hampered.”

2. Fossil-fuel exploration and emissions reduction

Scientists say global emissions must be reduced immediately to meet these warming goals. They hope to discuss this matter in detail at the upcoming conference.

In a statement, James Renwick, professor of physical geography at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, said: “I have low expectations of what has been described as a circus in the desert.”

“We need to make a strong commitment to reduce emissions (to stop at 1.5 degrees Celsius, the IPCC states that a 43 percent reduction in emissions would be needed by 2030) compared to 2019 levels. The time for serious emission reductions is now. The United Nations COP28 said. Countries in the next two years (to 2025 NDCs) should be the ‘possible COP’ where they show how they can speed up their pace, Renwick added.

3. Financial reductions in emissions

Scientists say that in order to reduce emissions and meet our warming goals, funding needs to go to sectors that help us stop burning fossil fuels.

“There is still a large gap in the amount of climate finance needed to meet the Paris Agreement goals, estimated at $3-6 trillion per year. There is a similar gap in investments in nature-based solutions and biodiversity loss. Current estimates are, I believe, on the low side of reality, 1.9 Trillions of dollars worth of assets are at risk from biodiversity loss, Sebastian Gehrik, senior lecturer in the University of Otago’s climate and energy finance group, said in a statement.

“A large part of this financing gap must be filled by private capital. The world’s rich countries have still not fulfilled their pledge to provide $100 billion in climate finance to developing countries, and some are questioning what is called climate finance,” Gehryk added.

gas station
Gas station on the coast of California. Scientists hope funding will be limited to companies and industries that exacerbate climate change.

“To address these gaps, we need to enable policy reforms globally, aligning these goals with financial incentives (carrots and sticks) and regulatory oversight to quickly deal with greenwashing and other misleading claims so that those are truly impactful. Ideas can come to the fore,” Gehryk said.

Scientists also hope that funding will be limited to companies and industries that exacerbate climate change, including fossil fuel exploration.

“Making profits from the fossil fuel industry, many are currently expanding exploration, tapping new resources and lowering their climate demands. This is extremely problematic and such projects should no longer be allowed,” Gehryk said.

“The vast reserves[of fossil fuel assets]already hold enough potential emissions to more than triple our global carbon budgets, and expanding these reserves is not only detrimental to our international commitments, but actually increases the risk of these trapped assets. They are so large and systemic that when assets freeze, the negative consequences reverberate throughout our economies and affect them all.

4. Adapting to a changing climate

As our temperature and emissions goals fail, other scientists hope that plans are being made to prepare for a rapidly changing climate.

“For the past few years, leading up to the COP meetings, the International Cryosphere (Snow and Ice) Group has published an annual report providing up-to-date information on the state of the cryosphere. This year’s report was written and reviewed by more than 60 scientists, all experts in their fields, and the state of the ice sheet, glaciers , includes ice, permafrost and sea ice,” Lauren Vargo, a researcher at Victoria University of Wellington’s Antarctic Research Centre, said in a statement.

Unfortunately, the themes in all chapters are consistent: 1.5 – 2°C warming will lead to massive melting of ice sheets, massive loss of mountain glaciers, melting of extensive permafrost, and massive formation of the Arctic Ocean. Free from sea ice in summer,” added Vargo.

Melting of permafrost It produces more carbon dioxide and methane, which adds to the continued warming. Small amounts of sea ice in the oceans change global climate and weather (sea ice reflects 50 to 70 percent of incoming energy, while the open ocean reflects only 6 percent).

It causes ice to melt Sea level rise Around the world, it causes flooding in low-lying areas and cities affected by hurricanes.

Without significant and rapid reductions in global emissions, we are increasingly likely to experience more and more extreme weather events, and the likelihood that various fundamental components of the Earth system (e.g., polar ice sheets, ocean currents, tropical rainforests) will move closer together. “Once passed, tipping points can lead to major and irreversible changes in a person’s lifetime,” Kingston said.

5. Talking about green washing

Scientists hope that companies will Liability for green washing. This is a term used to refer to an organization’s activities that appear to be more environmentally friendly than they actually are.

“Greenwashing by corporations and the fund management industry is rampant. Regulators around the world are taking more measures against this, but it should remain a key focus. The regulators need more resources, more powerful powers and governments need to ensure that these regulators are in place. With these mandates Conformity,” Gehryk said.

“If we don’t have transparency and verification of claims, the private sector cannot be aligned with climate goals, even though these are the most reliable way to generate long-term value and wealth.

“In this space, legal definitions, taxonomies and legal definitions are being developed and are extremely important. But this information must be verified and these definitions must be based on scientific accuracy, not ease of application. I hope that many countries will agree to work with European Union To have a globally comparable taxonomy,” Gehryk added.

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